Core Curriculum

Geography Lessons

Elementary


 
Learning Geography
Viewing The Earth
North America
Central and South America
Russia and Northern Eurasia
Europe
Africa
Southwest Asia: The Middle East
East and Southeast Asia
South Asia
The Pacific and Antarctica
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Secondary


 
The Earth at a Glance
Africa
Central and South America
Pacific South America...The countries of Pacific South America—Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador, are former Spanish colonies that had cultures and traditions long before the arrival of Europeans. Living in predominately Roman Catholic nations, the majority of the people in this region speak Spanish as well as indigenous or native languages such as Quechua. The region boasts many diverse physical features such as tropical rainforests, mountains, waterways, mineral resources, and a great variety of plant and animal life. Numerous rivers run into Lake Titicaca, which lies between Peru and Bolivia. Of Bolivia’s nearly nine million people, almost 85% claim either full or partial identity with an indigenous group. Bolivia exports products such as natural gas, soybeans, zinc, tin, and petroleum. Chile, with a population of over sixteen million as of July 2006, has an abundance of natural resources such as copper, timber, iron ore, and various metals. Chile also produces agricultural products such as grapes, apples, pears, beef, poultry, fish, and timber. Many of its citizens find work in industries such as copper mining or food and fish processing. The oil-rich Ecuador has a population of over thirteen million people, 95% of whom identify themselves entirely or partially with an indigenous group. Ecuador exports goods such as oil, bananas, cut flowers, and shrimp to other nations. Peru is home to many glorious ruins from the age of the Incans. Of its twenty-eight million, over 80% of Peru’s population have some or total indigenous heritage. Peru exports goods such as copper, gold, zinc, oil, and coffee. In this lesson, you will be learning more about the diverse cultures and features of these four nations in South America near the Pacific Ocean.
Europe
Eastern Europe...Feelings of great joy throughout Eastern Europe and the world followed the collapse of communist governments throughout the early 1990s. Yet, the collapse brought forth challenges as countries like Czechoslovakia splintered into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Perhaps Yugoslavia faced the greatest challenge as its many republics, consisting of different ethnic groups, declared their independence, splitting Yugoslavia into the six different countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, and most recently, Montenegro. Since the collapse of Yugoslavia’s communist government, this area of the Balkans has experienced massive amounts of ethic violence. Much of the violence has been between the ethnic Albanians in the Serbian republic of Kosovo and the Serbs. The 1999 Kosovo War reduced the amount of violence between the two groups, but Kosovo is still part of Serbia and many predict that they will soon declare their independence. The Balkans is not the only area experiencing ethnic violence. The Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are experiencing new waves of violence between their native citizens and Russian immigrants. Almost twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe continues to struggle. While some countries like Estonia have carved out successful economies, other countries still struggle with high poverty and unemployment rates as well as sectional violence. Will Eastern Europe ever become as successful as their Western European counterparts are? Will peace ever prevail? While all these questions remain, one thing is certain, though: the people of Eastern Europe are still determining their fate.
Russia and Northern Eurasia
East and Southeast Asia
Russia and Northern Eurasia
East and Southeast Asia
Russia and Northern Eurasia
East and Southeast Asia
North America
South Asia
Southwest Asia: The Middle East
The Pacific and Antarctica
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