Early Elementary K - 2 Lessons
• Listening Skills in Interpretation ...Becoming a good listener is important. Listening helps you to learn and understand what you read and what is going on around you. When you hear a story, you can learn about the plot, the characters, and the setting. Good listening will also let you learn about the conflict and theme of the story.
Reading and Comprehension Skills
• The Alphabet and Alphabetical Order...We use letters to write words. There are 26 letters in the alphabet. We put letters in order from A to Z. This is called alphabetical order. Sometimes it is called ABC order.
• Phonological Awareness and Phonics...All letters make sounds. You can blend the sounds together to make a word. Consonant letters usually make one sound. In some words, they sound different. When you have two or more consonant letters together that each say their sound, it is called a consonant blend. When you have two or more consonant letters together that make one sound, it is called a digraph. Vowel letters are the letters a, e, i, o, and u. These letters make two sounds. Vowel letters say their name like in the words “ape” and “eagle.” Vowel letters also say a different sound like in the words “cat” and “pet.” Sometimes vowels make other sounds too.
• Identifying Beginning and Ending Sounds...Each letter makes a sound. Listen to each sound in a word. You can figure out how to spell the word. Begin with the first sound and the last sound. Then try to hear the sounds in the middle.
• Syllables and Syllable Segmentation...Syllables are chunks of sounds that are found in words. Every word has at least one syllable. Finding the syllables in words can help you to read the words.
• Word Families...The words in a family have the same ending. The words cat, mat, sat, and fat are in the same family. The words big, dig, wig, and fig are in the same family. The words in a word family rhyme.
• Word Attack Skills – Decoding...When reading, you are likely to come across words that you do not know or understand. You must act like a detective to try to figure out (or decode) the word. One way to do this is to use the words and sentences (close to the word that you do not know) to figure out what it might be. These words can be clues that may tell you more about the word that you do not know. You can also break unknown words into chunks (small pieces of sounds) and then put the sounds back together. Another way is to think of the rules that you know about letters and sounds to help you figure out the word.
• Thinking about Reading...When you read, it is important to think about what you are reading. You should see a picture of the story in your head. You should know the characters and what they are doing. This is how you understand what you are reading. Then you can make inferences about the things you read to help you understand. An inference is using the clues that the author tells you to figure out something that the author does not tell you. You can also think about how stories are the same and how they are different. This is called comparing and contrasting. Thinking about what you read helps you to understand what you read.
• Comprehension Strategies ...When you read, you need to understand what you are reading. Luckily, there are tools that you can use to help you understand what you read. If you know the title, the characters, the setting, the problem, and the solution, you can more easily understand what you are reading. If you make a prediction about what is happening next, you will better understand the story. If you think about the cause and the effect, you can better understand why things happen in a story. If you make an inference, you look for clues that will help you understand better. There are many things that you can do to help you understand when you read.
• Nonfiction...Nonfiction is different from fiction. Fictional stories are not true. They did not really happen. Nonfiction stories are true. They really did happen. They are usually about a main idea. They can teach us things.
• Fiction...Fiction books are fun to read. They are full of details. They give you many feelings. There are many parts of fiction story. The setting tells us where the story happens. The point of view tells us who tells the story. A story map can help us put these parts together.
• Fairy Tales...Fairy tales are full of magic. They teach life lessons. There are many elements of a fairy tale. You will have fun reading about kings, frogs that talk, and birds that sing.
• Fantasy v. Reality...Fiction books are books that are about something that is not real. Fiction books can be called fantasy. This means that the things in the book are pretend. Fiction books can be called realistic fiction. This means that the things in the book did not happen, but could happen. Nonfiction books teach us something. Nonfiction books are about things that are true or real. Knowing about fiction and nonfiction can help you understand what you read.
• Graphic Organizers ...A graphic organizer is a tool that you use to help organize the things that you learn about when you read or when you are writing. You can use graphic organizers to help you understand better. A circle plot diagram is a graphic organizer that helps you remember what happened in a story. A Venn diagram is a graphic organizer that helps you to tell how two or more things are the same or different. A concept web is a graphic organizer that helps you to remember and organize many facts about one concept. There are many kinds of graphic organizers.
• Distinguishing Fact from Opinion ...Knowing about facts and opinions helps you to understand what you read. A fact is something that can be proven. Anyone can find out if a fact is true or real. An opinion is what someone thinks or feels about something. People can have different opinions.
• Poetry (Rhyme and Rhythm)...You can use poetry to make your readers feel something. Anyone can write a poem. Sometimes poetry rhymes, sometimes it does not. Sometimes poetry has rhythm, sometimes it does not. The following is a poem. Think about how you feel after you read this poem. Fire Warm, cozy Crackling, snapping, burning Family huddled together Fire
• Word Families and Rhyming Words...Some words have the same pattern and sound the same. They belong to one family. Words in the same family rhyme! Hot, not, rot, and tot are all part of the –ot family. There are many word families.
• Contractions and Possessives...We use apostrophes to help us make two words into one or to show possession. Contractions combine two words. Possessives show ownership of something.
• Multiple Meaning Words and Compound Words...Some words have more than one meaning. These words are called multiple meaning words. Multiple meaning words have more than one definition. Context clues help you to decide what a word means. You need to use the words and sentences that surround a word to figure out what it means.
• Synonyms and Antonyms...Words that mean the same are called synonyms. The words happy and joyful are synonyms. These words mean the same. Words that have opposite meanings are called antonyms. The words happy and sad are antonyms. Using synonyms and antonyms in our writing and speaking can help to make our vocabulary more interesting.
• Similes ...Similes make reading and writing more interesting. Similes tell the readers more about something. Similes compare two things using the words: like or as. Remember to use similes when you write so that your readers will know more about your stories and find them more interesting!
• Homonyms, Homographs, and Homophones...Sometimes the same words have different meanings. These words are called homonyms. Homophones and homographs are types of homonyms. Homonyms that sound the same but are spelled differently are called homophones. Homonyms that are spelled the sound but pronounced differently are called homographs. You can use the words in sentences close to the homonyms to help you understand what the words mean. Using called context clues will help you find out the meaning of the sentences.
• Spelling Rules and Techniques ...How can you learn how to spell a word that is new to you? You can cover it up, spell it the way you remember it, and then uncover it to see how you did. This is a really good method to use with words that cannot be sounded out. You can also try listening to the sound of the letters in a word and write the letters that make those sounds. Do not forget that some letters are tricky, like “y” and “gh,” and can make different sounds.
• Sight Words...Sight words are words that are found in most sentences. Many sight words cannot be sounded out. It is important to learn to recognize sight words when you read. This will help you to remember how to spell them. It will also help you to be able to read smoother. Another way to learn how to spell sight words is to practice writing them.
• Consonants...Consonants are letters of the alphabet that are not vowels. Consonant letters usually have only one sound that does say the letter name. When you make the sound of a consonant letter, your tongue or your teeth usually stop the sound. Consonant letters are very important to make words. We use consonant letters in almost every word that we speak, write, or read.
• Vowel Digraphs...A vowel has a special sound in a word. The vowels are “a,” “e,” “i,” “o”, “u,” and sometimes “y.” A vowel can have a short sound. Read the word “mop.” It has a short “o” sound. Some words have two vowels. Often, the rule is, the first vowel does the talking. The second vowel does the walking. Read the word “boat.” The “o” has a long vowel sound. The “a” has no sound. The “o” does the talking in the word “boat.” Read the word “treat.” The “e” has the long vowel sound. The “a” has no sound. The “e” does the talking. The “a” does the walking.
• Vowels...Vowels are important letters. We need a vowel to make every word. The letters a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y are vowels. Each vowel makes two sounds. Long vowel sounds say the name of the letter. Short vowel sounds make a sound. Without vowels, it would be very difficult to speak and read!
Grammar and Usage Skills
• Parts of a Sentence ...A complete sentence has two parts. The first part is the subject. The second part is called the predicate. The subject tells who or what the sentence is about. The subject is the naming part of the sentence. The predicate tells something about the subject. The predicate is the telling part of the sentence.
• Parts of Speech: Nouns ...Nouns name a person, a place, or a thing. Doctor, playground, and basketball are nouns. Nouns can be common or proper. A common noun names general people, places, or things. A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing. Singular nouns name one person, place, or thing. Plural nouns name more than one person, place, or thing.
• Parts of Speech: Verbs ...A verb tells about the action in a sentence. It tells what is happening. It tells what the noun is doing. This action could be happening now (present tense). It could have already happened (past tense). It could not have happened yet (future tense).
• Capitalization and Punctuation...Sentences need a capital letter to start the sentence. Proper nouns and the word “I” are always capitalized. Sentences need punctuation to end the sentence. You use a period when you are ending a telling sentence. You use a question mark when you are ending an asking sentence. You use an exclamation mark when you are ending a sentence that is excited, surprised, scared, or angry.
• Types of Sentences...A sentence is a complete thought that begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark, or exclamation mark. A sentence has a verb. There are four types of sentences. A statement is a sentence that is telling something and ends in a period. A question is a sentence that asks something and ends in a question mark. A command is a sentence that tells the reader to do something and ends in a period. An exclamation is a sentence that shows feeling and ends in an exclamation mark. We use these types of sentences to show meaning and make our language more interesting.
• Complete and Incomplete Sentences ...A complete sentence makes sense. It tells who or what the sentence is about and tells what is happening. A complete sentence has a verb. A complete sentence has a capital letter at the beginning and punctuation at the end. When a sentence does not have these things, it is incomplete.
Written and Oral Language Conventions
• What is a Paragraph?...A paragraph is a group of sentences put together that talk about the same idea, or topic. A paragraph has a topic sentence and three detail sentences. Each sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark, such as a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point.
Study Skills, Research, and Reference Skills